On 28 October the Government of France announced that it was postponing the ecotaxe. They cited the reason for this as disruption in Brittany by hauliers and farmers, but freight operators felt that the introduction was in any case being rushed. The registration process has been slow, which means that not enough haulage companies have been registered to make the scheme work.
Freight forwarders are falling victim to fraudulent Chinese freight operators demanding ransoms totalling thousands of dollars to release Bills of Lading.
In the UK over the past year, ransoms totalling US$33,500 have been reported.
The British International Freight Association (Bifa) warned operators this month October to be wary of emails from unknown Chinese forwarders, looking for UK partners and offering cheap ocean rates.
Once a signed and stamped agency agreement is in place between both parties and business starts, all appears to be normal. This is until the cargo arrives at the UK port and no-one has received the original Bill of Lading.
When contacted the Chinese forwarder then demands a large ransom for the release of the original Bills of Lading.
Companies which refuse to pay find themselves on an expensive rollercoaster ride of meetings with customers, lawyers, insurers and shipping lines in order to obtain the original Bills of Lading to release the cargo.
By spreading shipments around a number of shipping lines, fraudulent forwarders make this recovery process even more onerous.
Determining whether that mail shot is from a legitimate forwarder in China or part of a scam in the first place can be difficult, however just asking for a signature on an agency agreement with an overseas partner is not good enough, said Bifa.
Dan Harris, a lawyer at Harris & Moure and co-author of the China Law Blog, which focuses on assisting foreign companies doing business in China, writes in one of his blogs on how to avoid Chinese business scams: There is probably no document that has not been faked thousands of times in China. I have seen fake Bills of Lading, fake bank statements, fake contracts, fake purchase orders, fake company registrations, fake IP registrations, even fake lawyers.
If you are going to rely on paper, he said, at least do more than just rely on the document itself. At the very least businesses should check with the company or the governmental body that purportedly issued the document.
Put all of the documents you receive under a microscope. Even the most experienced scammers nearly always make some mistake in their fake documents.
Try to get the company s official corporate records from the official Chinese government sources. Though doing this is neither inexpensive nor easy it can be incredibly enlightening in that it usually goes far beyond the information provided by the basic company search firms.
It is hard to measure the scale of the Bills of Lading scam at present. Only two incidents have been reported in the UK to-date, although The Loadstar understands that forwarders in Australia have also posted warnings about this type of fraud.
The reasons for this could be that either these types of incidents are in their infancy or are underreported.
Michael Yarwood, claims executive for specialist freight insurer TT Club, said the techniques used in the scam are in line with fraudulent activity experienced throughout Europe, where entities pose as legitimate freight forwarders and hauliers with the sole purpose of cargo theft.
He said that the use of cargo clearing websites (or freight exchanges) to carry out theft is increasing.
Fraudulent forwarders pose as legitimate companies with spare capacity. They arrive on-time to collect loads and then disappear.
Another frequently seen scam involves organised gangs creating their own websites and advertising themselves as freight forwarders. These sites are characterised by very basic information, freemail accounts, and mobile phone or Skype contacts only, Mr Yarwood warned.
A third type of fraud commonly seen is where criminal organisations buy failing operators and continue to trade under their name in a state of virtual insolvency. They are able to identify and accept cargo which is subsequently stolen in transit. This type of scam is hard to identify, however checking with Companies House to determine whether there have been any recent changes in a company will help operators avoid being caught out by this type of fraud, Mr Yarwood suggested.
Companies need to perform due diligence in selecting carriers, he argued: Request original documents rather than electronic copies which are much easier to doctor.
He admits this is difficult with time-sensitive cargo and it is with these types of shipments that forwarders take risks they normally wouldn t take.
However, Mr Yarwood maintained that it is commercially less damaging to suggest a customer delays collection than to take a risk with an unknown operator.
This company is held in high regard by their industry peers, clientele and existing staff!
Our client is a reputable, well established and continually expanding Freight Forwarding company possessing a team focused mentality and the drive and determination to continue to expand.
This company is currently seeking a motivated and suitably experienced Operations Clerk / Coordinator with a working knowledge of Import Operaiotns and ideally either a familiarity or desire to develop their exports exposure as well!
In this autonomous role, you will be given responsibilty to ensure your clients are cared for exceptionally well, with a very high level of customer service expected.
To be considered for this role you must have at least 2 4 years local experience within a Freight Forwarding environment.
If successful your role will include the following:
- Liaising with the Operations Manager and working closely with them to ensure all customer expectations are exceeded!
- Significant interaction and job management with clients
- Coordinating releases of EDO s
- Providing a high level of Customer Service
- Invoicing clients
- Significant interaction and communication with Suppliers (including Airlines and Shipping Lines and Coloaders) and Government Agencies
- Handling all Import related enquiries
- Invoicing Disbursements & Finals
- Lodging Manifests
- Adhoc operational duties including crosstraining in Export Operations
In return, this company will repay you with an attractive remuneration package, opportunities to develop your skills further and internal promotion opportunities.
Salary on offer $50,000 $60,000 + Super
Train drivers working for Australian miner Rio Tinto make as much as A$240K (US$224K) per year to haul ore. According to BLS data, that is as much as surgeons in the US, and more than the $151K average of New York State lawyers.
Does that pay schedule make any sense? I do not think so, nor does Rio Tinto.
When costs are ridiculous, companies seek ways to lower them. Thus, the following Bloomberg headline should not be surprising: Rio Replacing Train Drivers Paid Like U.S. Surgeons1
The 400-plus workers in the remote Pilbara region who earn about A$240,000 ($224,000) a year probably are the highest-paid train drivers in the world, according to U.K.-based transport historian Christian Wolmar. Australia s decade-long mining boom has sucked up skilled workers, raising wages for engineers to drivers at Rio, the second-largest exporter of the mineral, and its closest competitors, Vale SA (VALE) and BHP Billiton Ltd.
Rio, which last year approved spending of $7.2 billion to expand the iron ore operations, is aiming to have the world s first, fully automated, long-distance and heavy-haul rail system operating in 2015. Its automated rail will have 1,500 kilometers (930 miles) of track, 10,000 wagons and individual train sets 2.3 kilometers long, according to Credit Suisse Group AG. The company is spending $518 million on the program that was announced last year.
You need to have quite a significant amount of scale in fleet and volumes to benefit from automation technology, said Evy Hambro, manager of BlackRock Inc. (BLK) s $7.7 billion World Mining Fund.
Rio s rail, port and truck movements are all watched over from a control center in the Western Australia state capital of Perth, 1,500 kilometers to the southeast, that has about 250 controllers working three shifts a day. The rail automation is part of the company s push to use technology to improve productivity and safety and wring out extra capacity from existing assets, Simon Prebble, general manager for Rio s automated trains project, said in an interview yesterday.
The trains have on-board systems that check speed, signals and operate the brake, Prebble said. Rio has installed a new radio-based network to communicate with the trains as well as close-circuit television at every public level crossing, he said. We also have an obstruction detection system which uses laser scanners to continually look for any obstructions.
Never Has Arrived
Why stop with train drivers? So, what about trucks?
For those who said truck drivers would never be replaced by robots, it appears “never has arrived” because Rio is also going to automate trucking.
From Bloomberg ….
Rio also plans to automate about 40 percent of its Pilbara truck fleet by 2016. The goal is to reduce costs to $15.60 a ton by 2020, from $23.10 a ton in the first half of this year, Paul Young, a Sydney-based analyst with Deutsche Bank said in a report after touring operations last month, citing Rio data. Automation is set to help shave $1.90 a ton off costs and boost output by 20 million tons, or 5 percent, he said.
Technology progress starts at high end specialties then permeates everywhere. Think of all the features in cars first found in Mercedes or BMW, now found everywhere.
And so it goes with automation. Truck driving will be automated for mines, and in a few years or sooner, it will spread.
Message to 5.7 Million Truck Drivers “No Drivers Needed”
I made the claim “Over the next two decades, machines will drive themselves and 5.7 million truck driving jobs will vanish.“
Many readers said that I was wrong, citing insurance reasons, city traffic, tight ports, etc. Truck drivers in particular said it would not happen, some citing “last mile” problems.
Poli: C mon guys even if they make it work, comes up some crazy guy with few thousand dollars buy one Russian 150 miles radius GPS/communication jammer and you ll see how many deaths in one minute!
Hotrod: Are you kidding me? With all the glitches and failure of computers you would have more accidents than ever.
Andrew: And in the beginning, self piloted trucks will all slam into a low clearance bridge in Chicago because the programmers forgot to take into account truck routes in various cities.
Angelo: This is a fantasy and nothing more until we arrive at the George Jetson generation. The infrastructure doesn t exist as it took 200 years to build the existing model which is certainly not designed for it, nor can it be retrofitted for such an endeavor.
Kay: I doubt it will happen in our lifetime. There are too many critical components to driving a truck on the road. Decisions have to be made by humans, not machines. If they can ever create a robot with a mind as complex and brilliant as humans and with the dexterity of arms and legs then they might be able to have automated-driving trucks. We aren t there yet and we won t be for another 30-50 years, IMO.
Alchemist: Who will have money to buy the products these automated trucks are hauling? I d like to know how they expect to sell anything to the vast nation of jobless, impoverished obsolete humans?
One rational person offered this pertinent comment:
Jon: Of course trucking companies are excited about this. So should everyone else. Passenger cars will get the same treatment, just a little slower. Yes us truck drivers will be out of a career. Welcome to the world of technological advancement. It happens to all professions eventually. Get used to the idea.
The Last Mile
Truck drivers talk about how they can never be replaced because of city traffic, tight spaces, etc., etc. It’s the “last mile” problem. One possible solution is automated trucking stations just outside major urban areas, where human drivers take over the “last mile”.
Recall the “last mile” problem with high speed internet? It’s been solved in numerous ways: DSL, Fiber, Cable, Satellite, Wi-Fi.
And so it will be with robot-operated trucking.
Automated trucking will not be here tomorrow, in the US, but it’s coming far sooner than anyone thinks.
Fed’s Battle Against Technology
The Fed is fighting the deflationary trend of technology. It’s a battle it cannot win. Real wages have not and will not keep up as asset bubbles in stocks and equities get bigger and bigger (and income inequality soars).
The problem is not low wages. The problem is high prices, fueled by the Fed and fractional reserve lending. The middle class has be ravaged by Fed policies.
Finally, please note that higher minimum wage laws do nothing but encourage use of more robots.
Source: Global Economic Analysis
- ^ Rio Replacing Train Drivers Paid Like U.S. Surgeons (www.bloomberg.com)
- ^ Message to 5.7 Million Truck Drivers “No Drivers Needed” Your Job is About to Vanish; Time Marches On, Fed Resistance is Futile (globaleconomicanalysis.blogspot.com)
- ^ ATA: Self-Driving Trucks Are Close To Inevitable (www.thetruckersreport.com)
Straits Times article dated 27 Sep reported on a $45 million new loan taken out by City Harvest Church (CHC). The loan was not taken from any financial institution but a logistics company listed on the Singapore Exchange called Freight Links Express Holdings (FLEH).
FLEH s core business is in freight forwarding. To offer a loan of this size suggests its core business may have changed. Have shareholders been notified? At 8 per cent per annum, the interest charged by FLEH is also quite high. But I guess CHC is desperate and will grab anything that comes along because no financial institution will offer a religious organisation a $45 million loan to purchase properties based on expected future earnings from worshippers.
What is interesting is that FLEH had managed to raise $100 million in a Fixed Rate Note issue bearing an interest rate of 4. 6 per cent just 4 months ago.http://www.freightlinks.net/MediaRelease/Press54.pdf1 These IOUs are normally used for general corporate purposes and financing investments related to its core business, certainly not for loans.
Business wise, it certainly does make sense to be earning 8 per cent while paying only 4.6 per cent without taking any risk.
However, this will set a precedent for every other listed companies on the exchange to stray from their core business. Should this be allowed by the Singapore Exchange?
The loan carries an interest payment of 8% per year.
- ^ http://www.freightlinks.net/MediaRelease/Press54.pdf (www.freightlinks.net)
The Sri Lanka Logstics and Freight Forwarders Association (SLFFA) was established in 1981 with the objective of bringing all freight forwarders under one umbrella, and with a view of institutionalising and professionalising the trade. Today the government, relevant government agencies and the trade have recognised the SLFFA as the apex body representing the freight forwarders in Sri Lanka.
SLFFA currently has 106 leading freight forwarding companies in its membership. SLFFA is a member of the regional freight forwarding body The Federation of Asia Pacific Air cargo Associations (FAPAA) and the International Freight Forwarding body FIATA.
The association has been working towards maximising the benefits to the freight forwarding industry by exploiting to the maximum the potential of Sri Lanka s strategic geographical location. It has identified the need for greater investment for the development of air and sea freight facilities, infrastructure and in the development of human resources to sustain the fruition of Sri Lanka becoming the hub port in the region.
The Association is also mindful of the developments taking place in the international freight forwarding arena and tries to keep the Sri Lankan Freight Forwarding industry abreast with the rest of the world.
Following the popularity and success of its initial Six-A-Side Cricket Carnival held in 2009/2010 and the follow up in 2011, the Sri Lanka Logistics and Freight Forwarders Association has once again scheduled a softball six-a side cricket tournament for Saturday, 28 September 2013, at the NCC grounds, Colombo.
The SLFFA Cricket Carnival is expected to draw a crowd of approximately 1000 participants, guests and spectators, whilst those in attendance would include the top officials such as Chairmen, Managing Directors, Directors and CEOs of leading logistics and freight forwarding companies in Sri Lanka. 48 teams, comprising of member companies, have enthusiastically registered to par-take in this event.
The main initiative to organise this event this year was to fund the SLFFA CSR project as funding is needed to complete the Lady Ridgeway Hospital operating theatre doors, a project currently in progress by SLFFA. SLFFA has undertaken to construct a total of 31 doors which consists of all the operating theatre doors along with those in the reception and waiting areas. Part of this project has already been completed and the proceeds collected at this event will be used to complete the rest of the project.
The carnival atmosphere at the grounds will be ideal for the whole family as there will be a kid s corner, food stalls and a live band with Papare, along with popular musicians to entertain all in attendance. As always, the association has also organised various prizes and surprises for all as well.
Colorado Motor Carriers Association President Greg Fulton s last opinion piece for Overdrive s Voices1 section argued for government better serving the interests of independents and small fleets2.
Recent statistics reflect that more than 90 percent of the trucking companies in the country are made up of businesses that have 20 or fewer employees. Very few of these companies have a staff attorney, regulatory director, or tax specialist. Yet because of the increasing complex web of laws and regulations in our country, almost all of these companies at one time during the year will need to retain the services of one of these specialists.
An owner of one small trucking company once mentioned to me that he woke up every morning worried that he was unwittingly violating at least one regulation or law each day. Because of the volume of laws and regulations and their changing nature, he could never be certain what exactly had changed day to day and where he failed to comply, but it was a constant concern.
The point is that every year, our state legislatures and the U.S. Congress, as well as officials with federal, state, and local governments, pass hundreds of new laws, regulations, ordinances, and rules that affect trucking in one way or another. In most cases these laws and regulations are approved by well-meaning elected officials or government agencies who are seeking to address particular issues that have been brought to their attention. Unfortunately, though, no one tallies the overall number, the cost and time to implement, or most importantly the cumulative impact that these measures may have on small businesses, the primary generator of jobs in our country. While there may be some analysis of the impact of a particular regulation, it generally is done in a void without consideration of other rules. Add to this the fact that there is little consistency among many of the state laws and one can see the problems this dynamic poses for small trucking companies and owner-operators.
For a number of years much has been said by elected officials about streamlining the regulatory process and reducing the burden on small businesses3. While there has been some progress, the regulatory onus continues to grow. This is occurring at a time when the country is still trying to recover from the recession and our nation faces even more competition on an international basis. To remain competitive in this environment our trucking companies are being pressed to be more productive and efficient. One way to do this would be to reduce the regulatory drag that saps critical time and money from our trucking companies, hitting small trucking operators especially hard.
Rather than investing in new trucks and trailers, creating additional jobs, and improving their facilities, our trucking companies find themselves spending more and more money on attorneys, tax consultants, and regulatory experts. Companies have little choice, because the cost of failing to comply with even one of these regulations, along with defending themselves against a perceived violation that may or may not even have existed, could mean the loss of their business or serious financial implications.
Even in cases where a company successfully defends itself, the legal bills may run into thousands of dollars along with countless staff hours spent working on the problem.
As we consider the future, we must recognize that our world is evolving with new technologies and ideas, our understanding of the environment is growing, and we are moving toward an international marketplace some new regulations will be needed.
But rather than continuing down the existing road and adding to the problem of regulatory complexity, we need to rethink how we craft regulations. We need to think in terms of smart regulation. Such an approach would seek to make new regulations simpler, more understandable, less costly, and easier to deal with from a compliance viewpoint. The language in any new regulation and what s required should be clear and concise and not require a small trucking company or owner-operator to retain an attorney to understand it.
Recently, we had an example of this form of smart regulation in Colorado with the modification of the state s diesel emissions-testing program. Rather than having all fleets conduct an outdated and time-consuming opacity test on all vehicles, the State passed a law that allows an option whereby a fleet can demonstrate compliance with emissions standards through electronic transmittal of their computerized maintenance records showing that they meet or exceed manufacturers maintenance specis. Rather than have companies focus on a test that provides little value, it allows them to cut out this step and place greater attention on engine maintenance. It was a clear win-win for both state and industry.
Government agencies should also do a better job on outreach and training for the industry on any new regulations or laws. From an efficiency standpoint, regulations should be constructed in a manner that enables cost-effective enaction and enforcement as well as easy compliance for businesses. Any new regulations should be designed as building upon existing systems and information rather than forcing companies to re-input data. At the same time, we need to look at new technologies and systems in our mobile and hi-tech world that will allow convenience and ease for trucking operators in complying with regulations as well as better understanding them.
Finally, agencies should actively and creatively seek input from the affected sector of the trucking industry before adopting new regulations. Focus groups, electronic town hall meetings, and webinars should all be considered to gain greater input and understanding of proposed regulations and ensure that they are crafted in a user-friendly manner that may lessen time and cost.
- ^ Voices (www.overdriveonline.com)
- ^ argued for government better serving the interests of independents and small fleets (www.overdriveonline.com)
- ^ streamlining the regulatory process and reducing the burden on small businesses (www.overdriveonline.com)
This year rates of growth of freight volumes have eased, victim of muted demand for China s manufactured goods. In May, both imports and exports fell. It is hoped that in future imports will be a source of sustainable growth; the government wishes to encourage domestic demand and reduce reliance on exports.
For the last several years the media has found examples of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) smuggling oil to Iran. This adds to its conflict with Baghdad, which wants to control the country s energy policy, and with Western countries that have imposed sanctions on Tehran for its nuclear program. Since this is a longtime business that the Kurds have been operating for at least the last two decades there is no reason for them to stop, and the ruling parties may even have plans to expand it in the coming years. In August 2013, Reuters and Asharq Al-Awsat reported that the KRG was continuing to truck oil products to Iran. The Reuters story stated that up to 30,000 barrels a day were being shipped1 across the border. A source claimed that Kurdish officials had approved a second route to Iran, and that this was an effort to appease Tehran for exporting oil to Turkey. Tehran and Ankara are regional rivals. The Asharq piece repeated the long-time Kurdish cover story2 that it was private companies that were doing the trade, that it was therefore not sanctioned by the KRG, and that energy firms in Kurdistan had no idea what happened to the oil after they produced it. The Kurds have been exporting oil illegally to Iran since at least the 1990s3 when sanctions were slapped on Iraq for the invasion of Kuwait if not beforehand. Occasionally this comes to the public eye like in August, but the KRG obviously has no intention of ending it. This picture from July 2010 by the New York Times of tankers lining up at the Iranian border caused a controversy for the KRG, but only highlighted what the Kurds had been doing for years (New York Times) There are many other examples in recent years of when the Kurds secret dealings with Iran were revealed. The most famous was in July 2010 when Sam Dagher of the New York Times went to the Iraq-Iran border and saw thousands of tankers4 lined up waiting to cross. A Kurdish official said that the profits were going to the ruling parties the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK), oil companies in the KRG, and even politicians in Baghdad. The embarrassment at the publicity, and its violation of international sanctions against Tehran, led Kurdistan to claim that it was cracking down upon any smuggling. It then tried to place blame upon private companies5, and the central government s subsidies on fuel6, which led traders to buy it cheap in Iraq, and re-sell it to Iran for a profit. Baghdad immediately complained, which added to the on-going dispute between the two sides over control over oil policy. The Maliki government threatened to cut the KRG s budget in retaliation, while the Kurds refused to hold any official talks on the matter7. The media then continued to find8 that trucks were going back and forth to Iran with no changes. Not only that, but Reuters reported that drivers told it that they got their fuel, documents, and destinations from KRG officials. The mayor at a border crossing stated that all the tankers were under contract to the authorities, while a shipping company in Irbil said that it had been working for the Natural Resource Ministry since 2009 to send oil products to Iran. The opposition Change List also released documents showing that the Kurdish Finance Ministry okayed the trade9 as well. After a few weeks the story disappeared from the headlines, but then returned in 201110 and 2012. (1) Again, this enraged Baghdad11. The reason why this illicit trade has continued on for so long, and continues to this day despite sanctions is that there are no incentives for Kurdistan to stop it. First, the profits go directly to the two ruling parties, providing them with an independent source of funds outside of the portion of the budget they receive from Baghdad. The trade is also split up between the two with smuggling to Turkey dominated by the KDP, while the PUK handles Iran. In turn, a percentage of the money goes to companies that are producing in Kurdistan. They have been waiting years for an official export deal with the central government, which would allow them to ramp up production, and start earning profits. Those agreements have been few and far apart, and always breakdown. That limits the energy businesses to supplying Kurdistan. Smuggling is a way to appease them with providing some additional money for all the costs they are incurring. As Irbil develops its energy sector it is hoping to move from smuggling operations like these to making a legitimate business out of it. The KRG has been trucking oil to Turkey as long as it has been to Iran, and recently has gotten official sanction from the former. The Kurds may be hoping to accomplish the same thing with its illicit trade with Iran. That will be extra difficult given the sanctions Iran is facing for its nuclear program, but long term Turkey and Iran are the natural trade routes for Kurdistan s oil. This would also increase tensions with Baghdad, but the KRG does not believe that it has to answer to the central government at all. The Kurds are hoping to make its petroleum business the basis for an independent economy. Smuggling doesn t provide enough revenue to achieve that, and doesn t appeal to the energy companies that have invested there either. It s only by obtaining bilateral trade agreements for tankers, and then eventually building pipelines that the ruling parties can achieve their goals. That s still a long way off, and may not work out as planned, but until then stories of Kurdish trucks going back and forth with Iran will continue. 1. Kadhem, Adel, $20 million worth of southern Iraqi oil are smuggled via Kurdish region, Azzaman, 2/17/12 AK News, Le Figaro: Kurdistan continues oil smuggling, 8/15/10 – KRG refutes Reuters exportation report, 7/23/10 – Kurdish prime minister promises to release oil documents, 8/26/10 – Minister: Kurdistan oil production to jump to 1 million in near future, 8/19/10 Aswat al-Iraq, smuggling oil from Kurdistan waste of national wealth, 4/17/12 Bloomberg, KRG Denies Exxon has Frozen Oil Contract, Iraq Business News, 4/4/12 Coles, Isabel, and Fineren, Daniel, Iraqi Kurdistan opens official crude oil trade route via Iran-sources, Reuters, 8/7/13 Dagher, Sam, Smugglers in Iraq Blunt Sanctions Against Tehran, New York Times, 7/8/10 Davies, Rhodri, Tanker trucks line up on North Iraq-Iran border, Al Jazeera Blogs, 2/4/11 Ghanim, David, Iraq s Dysfunctional Democracy, Santa Barbara, Denver, Oxford: Praeger, 2011 Hafidh, Hassan, Iraqi Kurdistan Rejects Charges Of Oil Smuggling, Dow Jones, 4/3/12 International Crisis Group, Iraq And The Kurds: The High-Stakes Hydrocarbons Gambit, 4/19/12 – Oil For Soil: Toward A Grand Bargain On Iraq And The Kurds, 10/28/08 Jawad, Laith, Minister says smuggling of Iraqi oil goes on unabated, Azzaman, 12/17/11 Kadhem, Adel, $20 million worth of southern Iraqi oil are smuggled via Kurdish region, Azzaman, 2/17/12 Lando, Ben, ANALYSIS: Iraq s fourth bid round evolves with Kurdish oil dispute, Platts, 5/29/12 – UN oversight of Iraqi oil money struggling to adapt, Iraq Oil Report, 7/28/10 McEvers, Kelly, Flow Of Oil From Iraq To Iran Raises Concerns, NPR, 8/13/10 Mohammed, Bryar, Tanker drivers sell oil and fill up with water, AK News, 7/13/11 Natali, Denise, Iraq s flaws are losing it oil wealth, Daily Star, 3/11/11 Platts, Iraq says to discuss oil smuggling to Iran with Kurd authorities, 7/11/10 Reuters, Despite pledges, Iraqi Kurd oil still flows to Iran, 7/22/10 – Iraq Kurds say to crack down on fuel smuggling, 7/11/10 – SPECIAL REPORT Risk, reward and Kurdistani oil, 3/10/11 Risen, James and Adnan, Duraid, U.S. Says Iraqis Are Helping Iran to Skirt Sanctions, New York Times, 8/18/12 Saadi, Salam and Ahmed, Hevidar, Hussein Shahristani: Connecting Kurdistan to Nabucco Pipeline Out of the Question, Rudaw, 5/24/11 Shekhani, Sherzad, Iraqi Kurdistan denies exporting crude oil through Iran, Asharq Al-Awsat, 8/9/13 El-Tablawy, Tarek and Barzanji, Yahya, Oil smuggling to Iran embarrassment for Iraq, Associated Press, 7/13/10 Waleed, Khalid Khalid, Shorsh, Oil Smuggling Allegations Widen Baghdad-Erbil Rift, Institute for War & Peace Reporting, 7/23/10
- ^ 30,000 barrels a day were being shipped (mobile.reuters.com)
- ^ repeated the long-time Kurdish cover story (www.ekurd.net)
- ^ since at least the 1990s (www.crisisgroup.org)
- ^ saw thousands of tankers (www.nytimes.com)
- ^ private companies (www.reuters.com)
- ^ central government s subsidies on fuel (www.boston.com)
- ^ refused to hold any official talks on the matter (iwpr.net)
- ^ media then continued to find (www.reuters.com)
- ^ the Kurdish Finance Ministry okayed the trade (www.amazon.com)
- ^ returned in 2011 (blogs.aljazeera.com)
- ^ enraged Baghdad (www.aina.org)
The Chinese government is aiming to maintain stable growth in the second half of the year by fine-tuning economic policies. The policies cover a wide range of areas, including customs clearance, foreign exchange, taxes and inspections. The outlook for exports in the second half is not optimistic.